Directions (1-7): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words and phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Let us turn back to inquire whether sending our capital abroad, and consenting to be taxed to pay emigration fares to get rid of the women and men who are left without employment in consequence, is all that capitalism can do when our employers, who act for out capitalists in industry affairs, and are more or less capitalists themselves in the earlier stages of capitalistic development, find that they can sell no more of their goods at a profit, or indeed at all, in their own country.
Cleary they cannot send abroad the capital they have already invested, because it has all been eaten up by the works leaving in its place factories and railways and mines and the like; and these cannot be packed into a ship’s hold and sent to Africa. It is only the freshly saved capital than can be sent out of the country. This, as we have seen, does go abroad in heaps of finished product. But the British land held by him on long lease, must, when once he has sold all the goods at home that his British customers can afford to buy, either shut up his works until the customers have worn out their stock of what they have bought, which would bankrupt him (for the landlord will not wait), or else sell his superfluous good somewhere else; that is, he must send them abroad. Now it is not easy to send them to civilized countries, because they practise protection, which means that they impose heavy taxes on foreign goods. Uncivilized countries, without protection, and inhabited by natives to whom gaudy calicoes and cheap showy brassware are dazzling and delightful novelties, are the best places to make for at first.
But trader requires a settled government to put down the habit of plundering strangers. This is not a habit of simple tribes, who are often friendly and honest. It is what civilized men do where there is no law to restrain them. Until quite recent times it was extremely dangerous to be wrecked on our coasts, as wrecking, which meant plundering wrecked ships and refraining from any officious efforts to save the lives of their crews was a well-established business in many places on our shores. The Chinese still remember some astonishing outbursts of looting perpetrated by English ladies of high position, at moments when trading was suspended and priceless works of art were to be had for the grabbing. When trading with aborigines begins with the visit of a single ship, the cannons and cutlasses carried may be quite sufficient to overawe the natives if they are troublesome. The real difficulty begins when so many ships come that a little trading station of white men grows up and attracts the white never-do-wells and violent roughs who are always being squeezed out of civilization by the pressure of law and order. It is these riff-raff who turn the place into a sort of hell in which sooner or later missionaries and murdered and traders plundered. Their home governments are appealed to put a stop to this. A gunboat is sent out and inquiry made. The report after the inquiry is that there is nothing to be done but set up a civilized empire. And the civilized taxpayer plays the bill without getting a farthing of the profits. Of course the business does not stop there. The riff-raff who have created the emergency move out just beyond the boundary of the annexed territory, and are as great a nuisance as ever to the traders when they have exhausted the purchasing power of the included natives and push on after fresh customers. Again they call on their home government to civilize a further area; and so bit by bit the civilized empire grows at the expense of the home taxpayers, without any intention or approval on their own country, their own rulers, and their own religious faith; they find that the centre of their beloved realm has shifted to the other hemisphere. That is how we in the British Islands have found our centre moved from London to the Suez Canal, and are now in the position that out of every hundred of our fellow-subjects, in whose defence we are expected to shed the last drop of our blood, only 11 are whites or even Christians. In our bewilderment some of us declare that the Empire is a burden and a blunder, whilst others glory in it as triumph. You and I need not argue with them just now, our point for the moment being that, whether blunder or glory. The British Empire was quite unintentional. What should have been undertaken only as most carefully considered political development has been a series of commercial adventures thrust on us by capitalists forced by their own system to cater to foreign customers before their own country’s need were one-tenth satisfied
1. It may be inferred that the passage was written:
(a)When Britain was still a colonial power
(b)When the author was in a bad mood
(c)When the author was working in the foreign service of Britain
(d)When the author’ country was overrun by the British
(e) None of these
2. According to the author, the habit of plundering the strangers:
(a) Is usually not found in simple tribes but civilized people
(b) Is usually found in the barbaric tribes of the uncivilized nations
(c) Is a habit limited only to English ladies of high position
(d) Is a usual habit with all white-skinned people
(e) None of these
3. Which of the following does not come under the aegis of capital already invested?
(i) Construction of factories (ii) Development of a mine
(iii) Trade of finished products
(a) Both (i) and (iii)
(b) Both (ii) and (iii)
(c ) Only (i)
(d) Only (iii)
(e) All of the above
4. Which of the following may be called the main complaint of the author?
(a) The race of people he belongs to are looters and plunderers
(b) The capitalists are taking over the entire world
(c) It is a way of life for English ladies to loot and plunder
(d) The English taxpayer has to pay for the upkeep of territories he did not want
(e) None of these.
5. Why do capitalistic traders prefer the uncivilized countries to the civilized one?
(a) Because they find it easier to rule them
(b) Because civilized countries would make them pay protection duties
(c) Because civilized countries would make their own goods.
(d) Because uncivilized countries like the cheap and gaudy goods of bad quality all capitalists produce.
(e) None of these.
6. The word ‘officious’, in the context of the passage, means:
7. According to the author, to main reason why capitalist go abroad to sell their good is:
(i) That they want to civilize the underdeveloped countries of the world by giving them their goods
(ii) That they have to have new places to sell their surplus goods somewhere in new markets
(iii) That they actually want to rule new lands and selling goods in an excuse
(a) Only (i)
(b) both (ii) an (iii)
(c) Only (iii)
(d) Both (ii) and (i)
(e)None of the above
Directions (8): Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
Directions (9-15): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words and phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The membrane-bound nucleous is the most prominent feature of the eukaryotic cell. Schleiden and Schwann, when setting forth the cell doctrine in the 1830s, considered that it had a central role in growth and development. Their belief has been fully supported even though they had only vague notions as to what that role might be, and how the role was to be expressed is some cellular action. The membraneless nuclear area of the prokaryotic cell, with its tangle of fine threads, in now known to play a similar role.
Some cells, like the sieve tubes of vascular plants and the red blood cells of mammals, do not possess nuclei during the greater part of their existence, although they had nuclei when in a less differentiated state. Such cells can no longer divide and their life span is limited. Other cells are regularly multinucleate. Some, like the cells of striated muscles of the latex vessels of higher plants, become so through cell fusion. Some like the unicellular protozoan paramecium, are normally binucleate, one of the nuclei serving as a source of hereditary information for the next generation, the other governing the day-to-day metabolic activities of the cell. Still other organisms, such as some fungi, are multinucleate because cross walls, dividing the mycelium into specific cells, and it would appear that this is the most efficient and most economical manner of partitioning living substance into manageable units. This point of view is given credence not only by the prevalence of uninucleate cells but because for each kind of cell there is a ratio maintained between the volume of the nucleus and that of the cytoplasm. If we think of the nucleus as the control centre of the cell, this would suggest that for a given kind of cell performing a given kind of work, one nucleus can ‘take care of a specific volume of cytoplasm and keep it in functioning order. In items of material and energy, this must mean providing the kind of information needed to keep the flow of material and energy moving at the correct rate and in the proper channels. With the multitude of enzymes in the cell, material and energy can of course be channeled in a multitude of ways; it is the function of some information molecules to make channels of use more preferred than other at any given time. How this regulatory control is exercised is not entirely clear.
The nucleus is generally a rounded body. In plant cells, however where the centre of the cell is often occupied by a large vacuole, the nucleus may be pushed against the cell wall, causing it to assume a lens shape. In some white blood cells such as polymorphonucleated leukocytes, and in cells of the spinning gland of some insects and spider, the nucleus is very much lobed. The reason for this is not clear, but it may relate to the fact that for given volume of nucleus, a lobate form provides much greater surface area for nucleur- cytoplasmic exchange, possibly affecting both the rate and the amount of metabolic reactions. The nucleus, whatever its shape, is segregated from the cytoplasm by a double membrane, the unclear envelope, with the two membranes separated from each other by a perinuclear space of varying width. The envelope is absent only during the time of cell division, and then just for a brief period. The outer membrane is often continuous with the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, a possible retention of an earlier relationship, since the envelope, at least in part, is formed at the end cell division by coalescing fragments of the endoplasmic reticulum. The cytoplasmic side of the nucleus is frequently coated with ribosomes, another fact that stresses the similarity and relation of the nuclear envelope to the endoplasmic reticulum. The inner membrane seems to possess a crystalline layer where it abuts the nucleoplasm, but its function remains to be determined.
Everything that passes between the cytoplasm and the nucleus in the eukaryotic cell must transverse the nuclear envelope. This includes some fairly large molecules as well as bodies such as ribosomes, which measure about 25 mm in diameter. Some passageway is, therefore, obviously necessary since there is no indication of dissolution of the nuclear envelope in order to make such movement possible. The nuclear pores appear to be reasonable candidates for such passageways. In plant cells these are irregularly, rather sparsely distributed over the surface of the nucleus, but in the amphibian oocyte, for example, the pores are numerous, regularly arranged, and octagonal and are formed by the fusion of the outer and inner membrane.
9. Which of the following kinds of cell never have a nuclei?
(ii)Red bloods cells of mammals
(a) Only (i)
(b) Both (i) and (iii)
(c) Both (ii) and (iii)
(d) only (iii)
(e) None of these
10. According to the first paragraph, the contention of Schleiden and Schwann that the nucleus is the most important part of the cell has :
(a) been proved to be true
(b) has been true so far but false in the case of the prokaryotic cell
(c) is only partially true
(d) has been proved to be completely false
(e) None of these
11. It may be inferred from the passage that the vast majority of cells are:
(e) None of these
12. What is definitely a function of the nuclei of the normally binucleate cell?
(a) To arrange for the growth and nourishment of the cell.
(b) To hold hereditary information for the next generation
(c) To make up the basic physical structure of the organism
(d) To fight the various foreign diseases attacking to body
(e) None of these
13. The function of the crystalline layer of the inner membrane of nucleus is:
(i) generation of nourishment of the cell
(ii) holding in transversal of the nuclear envelope
(iii) helping in transversal of the nuclear envelope
(a) Only (i)
(b) Both (ii) and (iii)
(c) only (ii)
(d) only (i)
(e)None of these
14. Why according to the passage, is the polymorphonucleated leukocyte probably lobed?
(a) Because it is quite convoluted in its functions
(b) Because it is the red blood cell which is the most important cell in the body
(c) Because it provides greater area for metabolism reactions
(d) Because it provides greater strength to the spider web due to greater area
(e) None of these
15. Why, according to the passage, are fungi multinucleate?
(i) Because they need more food to survive
(ii) Because they frequently lack walls dividing the mycelium
(iii) Because they mycelium is area wise much bigger than other cells
(a) Only (i)
(b) Both (ii) and (iii)
(c) Only (ii)
(d) Both (i) and (ii)
(e) None of these
Directions (16-20): The Following questions have two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Choose the set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.
16. The equipments that were being used in the survey were ……………….. , and because of the below-zero temperature, it was feared they would freeze and ………………….
(a) icy, capsize
(b) frosty, shide
(c) fragile, shatter
(d) frozen, dehydrate
(e) useless, capsize
17. The young boy’s ………………….. attempts to explain to his girlfriend why he had failed to show for their movie date did little to ease her ……………. feelings.
(a) impassioned, disconsolate
(b) veracious, vacuous
(c) unbelievable, gluttonous
(d) chronic, vicarious
(e) immeasurable, vacuous
18. There was a ……………………… all about the palace, and the …………… concerned the security guards.
(a) gift, distribution
(b) silence, quiet
(c) tranquil, temper
(d) feast, circulation
(e) commotion, quiet
19. The conspirators met ……………………… in order to plot a(n) ………………… against the oppressive governance of Julius Caesar.
(a) clandestine, revolt
(b) wickedly, invocation
(c) craftily, referendum
(d) wittily, ban
(e) aggressively, crime
20. Although the food in the hostel mess was barely ………………….., after six months, the residents of the hostel had become …………….. to it.
(a) edible, immune
(b) edible, inured
(c) palatable, immune
(d) palatable, inured
(e) affordable, attuned
Directions (21-25): Rearrange the following six sentences A, B, C, D, E, F and G in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph; then answer the questions given below them.
A. Only the opening moves have been made on the Brexit chessboard but judging by the reaction from spectators, the UK is inexorably heading towards checkmate by the EU.
B. The post-Brexit fall of nearly 19% in the pound and forecasts of another 10% decline have been spun as evidence of a weak position.
C. However, focusing on the gyrations of the pound is akin to looking at the clock in a chess game.
D. Moreover, it detracts from focusing on the board and coming up with a winning strategy.
E. The Bremoaners have seized on the less than sterling performance of the British pound as proof that the armageddon they predicted is not going to be long in coming.
F. The recent wild swings have added to the sense of unease and have led to calls for Prime Minister Theresa May and her government to sue for an honourable draw.
G. Screaming that it is running down is factually correct but completely useless.
21. Which sentence should be the FOURTH in the paragraph?
22. Which sentence should be the SEVENTH (LAST) in the paragraph?
23. Which sentence should be the FIRST in the paragraph?
24. Which sentence should be the FIFTH in the paragraph?
25. Which sentence should be the THIRD in the paragraph?
Directions (26-30): Five statements are given below labeled (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e). Of these 4 statements form a coherent paragraph/ passage. From the given options, choose the option that doesn’t fit the sequence.
26. (a). Drivers chew some intoxicant, smoke, use pills and consume special drinks mainly to drive more, sleepless and deliver fast.
(b). A recent survey has found that truck and other vehicle drivers working overtime use intoxicants and suffer from health problems including sleeplessness and stress.
(c). Around 27% of the drivers surveyed admitted that they consumed alcohol while driving, another 10% said they chewed tobacco and 26% smoked beedi, the survey in the states revealed.
(d). The survey was conducted as part of a project by the Institute of Road Traffic Education (IRTE) and Centre for Disease Control and Prevention of the US.
(e). The survey was conducted across states including Rajasthan Maharashtra and the NCR.
27. (a) The book ‘Knowing Christ Today’ by Dallas Willard deals with the disastrous effects of divorcing the teachings of Jesus Christ and his people from the domain of human knowledge.
(b) Its aim is to reposition the substantial teachings of Christianity (“Mere” Christianity) as a body of knowledge in the contemporary world.
(c) It is Dr. Willard’s hope that this book will put those who practice Christian discipleship in a different and much stronger position, and that it will be helpful for all areas of education, but especially for Christian schools, colleges and universities.
(d) In the process it explains what knowledge is, as compared to belief, commitment and profession.
(e) It further clarifies the difference it makes whether or not an area of thought and practice is regarded as an area of knowledge.
28. (a). The “Dare to Lead” conference was attended by more than150 women executives spanning across various industries and touched upon issues pertaining to the challenges faced by women in the corporate world.
(b). An Executive Debani Ghosh said that women have to stop putting themselves down; no one else can banish their insecurities for them.
(c). Be confident in your competence that you don’t need to play the gender card anymore, equality can only be demanded if women themselves stop expecting any special treatment.
(d). From the shop-flower to board room women have proven that they are skilled.
(e). The challenge lies in acknowledging this and giving them their place under the sun.
29. (a)Writers do not always express in direct words what they want to say; they depend on the common sense of the reader to be able to form total impression of whole writing.
(b)In a comprehension exercise you may be asked all types of questions designed to test your knowledge of the passage.
(c)You may be asked to give the facts and inter-pretation of these facts.
(d)You may be asked to express the meaning of word or phrase as it is used in the passage.
(e)You may also be asked to find out the theme and tone of the passage.
30. (a)It is tough to find another sports person who holds so many records, Given that cricket is a sport driven by numbers.
(b)He has made his fans fall in love with numbers because he kept clocking them one after the other, with each figure seeming more incredible.
(c) I remember the time when he suffered the tennis elbow; it was a big concern for us as he had missed many matches.
(d) 100 hundreds in international cricket, 15,847 test runs, first to score a double hundred in ODIs, most runs in World Cup the list goes on and on for him
(e) This should make for a good KBC question. How many records does Sachin Tendulkar hold?
Directions (31-35): A part of the sentence is underlined below are given alternatives to thee underlined part at (a), (b), (c) and (d) which may improve the sentence choose the correct alternative and mark your answer in the answer sheet. In case no improvement is needed, our answer is (e).
31. If he was to decide to go to college,one would recommend that he plan to go to IIM Ahmedabad.
(a) If he were to decide to go to college,one would recommend that he plan to go to IIM Ahmedabad.
(b) Had he decided to go to college,one would recommend that plan to go to IIM Ahmedabad.
(c) In the event that he decides to go to college,one would recommend that plan to go to IIM Ahmedabad.
(d) Had he decided to go to college,one would recommend that he go to IIM Ahmedabad.
(e) No improvement
32. When one reads the Hindi literature of the twentieth century,you find a striking contrast between the writings of Munshi Premchand and later day writers of popular Hindi fiction.
(a) When you read the Hindi literature of the twentieth century,one finds a striking contrast between the writings of Munshi Premchand and later day writers of popular Hindi fiction.
(b) When one reads the Hindi literature of the twentieth century,he finds a striking contrast between the writings of Munshi Premchand and later day writers of popular Hindi fiction.
(c) If one reads the Hindi literature of the twentieth century,you find a striking contrast between the writings of Munshi Premchand and later day writers of popular Hindi fiction.
(d) When one reads the Hindi literature of the twentieth century,one finds a striking contrast between the writings of Munshi Premchand and later day writers of popular Hindi fiction.
(e) No improvement
33. When one travels by Air Lahara,you often find that the prices are high and that the journey experience is extremely poor.
(a) When you travel by Air Lahara,one often finds that the prices are high and that the journey experience is extremely poor.
(b) As you travel by Air Lahara,you often find that the prices are high and that the journey experience is extremely poor.
(c) If you travel by Air Lahara,you often find that the prices are high and that the journey experience is extremely poor.
(d) When one travels by Air Lahara,the one often finds that the price is higher and that the journey experience is extremely poor.
34. Because of his tennis elbow injury, Limba Ram has not and possibly never will be able to pick up the bat again.
(a) Because of his tennis elbow injury, Limba Ram has not and possibly will never be able to pick up the bat again.
(b)Because of his tennis elbow injury, Limba Ram has not been and possibly never would be able to pick up the bat again.
(c)Because of his tennis elbow injury, Limba Ram has not been able to and possibly never will be able to pick up the bat again.
(d)Because of his tennis elbow injury, Limba Ram has not and if possible be never able to pick up the bat again.
35. Had he realized how close he was to failing, he would not have gone to the party.
(a) If he would have realized how close he was to failing, he would not have gone to the party.
(b) Had he had realized how close he was to failing, he would not have gone to the party.
(c) When he realized how close he was to failing, he did not go to the party.
(d) If he would realize how close he was to failing, he should not have gone to the party.
(e) No improvement
Directions (36-40): In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.
The worlds’ climate has always changed and species have evolved accordingly to survive it. The surprising fact about the (116) between evolution and global warming is that it is not linear. Rising temperatures alone are not (117) of evolution. Evolution is also the result of seasonal changes. As the environment changes those species which don’t adapt (118) to exist. But the sheer pace of manmade climate change today is (119). ‘Bad things are happening’ and by one (120) global warming could threaten upto one-third of the world’s species if left unchecked. In fact, a lot of the species which will be able to survive are the ones we consider pests like insects and weeds.
36. (a) difference
37. (a) means
38. (a) continue
39. (a) threatened
40. (a) forecast
1. (a); The author talks about the British empire and how they captured the foreign territories. This reveals that the passage was still when Britain was still a colonial power. Option (a) is the right choice
2. (a); According to the passage, the people of the tribes are usually friendly and the habit of plundering the strangers is not found among them. Option (a) is thus the right answer choice.
3. (d); According to the passage, the trade of finished products involved the investement of fresh capital and the capital already invested could not be used for the purpose. Hence, option (d) is the right choice.
4. (d); The author states that the civilised English taxpayers had to pay for the taxes, they did not choose to pay for, to upkeep the territories. This makes option (d) the right choice.
5. (b); The author states that the trade in uncivilized countries is safer as the people are made to pay heavy taxes on the goods being imported. Option (b) is thus the right choice
6. (a); Refer to the lines: “Until quite recent times it was extremely dangerous to be wrecked on our coasts, as wrecking, which meant plundering wrecked ships and refraining from any officious efforts to save the lives of their crews was a well-established business in many places on our shores.” The word officious actually does not mean official. It means to meddle, in other words, to intrude into a certain matter. Generally a negative word and used to highlight intrusiveness, here it stands of lack of any action, or interference in a matter where presence was required. Hence, in the given context it means meddling.
7. (c); The author states that the main reason why the capitalists go abroad besides selling their goods is so that they can overpower the territory and rule the new land
8. (b); Plundering means steal (goods), typically using force and in a time of disorder hence Consecrate is the word most opposite in meaning.
9. (e); The line from the paragraph 2,”Some cells, like the sieve tubes of vascular plants and the red blood cells of mammals, do not possess nuclei during the greater part of their existence, although they had nuclei when in a less differentiated state” explains that option (e) is the right choice
10. (a); The line “Their belief has been fully supported” explains that the contention of Schleiden and Schwann that the nucleus is the most important part of the cell has been proved to be true. Hence, the right answer choice is option (a).
11. (c); The line, “ This point of view is given credence not only by the prevalence of uninucleate cells”, explains that the majority of the cells are uninucleate. Option (c) is thus the right choice.
12. (b); The line.”binucleate, one of the nuclei serving as a source of hereditary information for the next generation” suggests that option (b) is the right answer.
13. (e); No reference has been made to the function performed by the crystalline layer of the inner membrane of the nucleus. Hence, option (e) is the right choice for the given question.
14. (c); The line, “The reason for this is not clear, but it may relate to the fact that for given volume of nucleus, a lobate form provides much greater surface area for nucleur- cytoplasmic exchange, possibly affecting both the rate and the amount of metabolic reactions” explains that option (c) is the right choice
15. (c); The line from paragraph 2, “some fungi, are multinucleate because cross walls, dividing the mycelium into specific cells, and it would appear that this is the most efficient and most economical manner of partitioning living substance into manageable units” explains that option (c) is the right answer choice.
16. (c); fragile means (of an object) easily broken or damaged.
17. (a); impassioned means filled with or showing great emotion.
Disconsolate means very unhappy and unable to be comforted.
18. (b); ‘silence, quiet’ fits the two blank perfectly.
19. (a); Clandestine means kept secret or done secretively, especially because illicit.
20. (d); Palatable means (of food or drink) pleasant to taste.
For questions (Q101-105): The correct sequence is AEBFCGD.
21. (a) 102. (e) 103. (a) 104. (e) 105. (b)
26. (a); The para is about the survey conducted on heavy vehicle drivers who work overtime and consume intoxicants. Statement (a) talks about drivers who drink and drive fast. While rest statements talk about survey conducted on heavy vehicle drivers, hence statement (a) is the odd one out.
27. (c); The para is based on the content of the book called ‘’knowing Christ today’’ by Dallas Willard. Statement (a), (b),(d) mentions about content of the book but statement(c) mentions Dr. Williams percept for the book.
28. (a); Statement (a) describes about the conference held on women empowerment. While statement (b), (c) and (d) mentions opinion of a women executive Debani Ghosh. The correct order is (b, c, d, e).
30. (c); Statement (b) describes how the sportsperson made incredible record and made his fans fall in love numbers. Statement (a) is also interconnected as it talks about the numbers ‘’ sports person who holds so many records” while statement (c) talks about the sportsperson’s injury, it is to be noted that other remaining statements also are talking about his accomplishments hence option (c) is the correct choice.
31. (a); Option (a) is the best way of expressing the idea.
32. (b); The improper use of pronoun ‘one’ and ‘you’ is corrected in option (b)
33. (c); Option (c) is the best way of expressing the idea.
34. (c); The omission of the past participle ‘been’ is corrected in choice (c)
35. (e); There is no need for improvement in the original sentence.
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